Identification of variety management variables for product development and establishment of maturity levels
The importance of expanding a company’s variety of products is easily observed in competitive markets, where a greater variety means a greater chance of meeting specific consumer needs. On the other hand, a larger product list implies the need for better variety management. In this article, we study how two companies deal with variety management during product development, in order to identify the factors and variables linked to their success. Three axes are observed to be central to effective variety management: variety, flexibility and integration. Furthermore, technical variables were also identified that enable a company to manipulate such axes. For each variable, levels of maturity are established that enabled the identification of how those companies perform their variety management. As result, a tool is delivered that can evaluate an organization’s maturity level regarding variety management. The proposed tool is also capable of performing competitive benchmarks between different organizations.
Archer, N. P.; Ghasemzadeh, F. An integrated framework for project portfolio selection. International Journal of Project Management, v. 17, n. 4, p. 207-216, 1999.
Baldwin, C. Y.; Clark, K. B. Design rules: the power of modularity. USA: MIT Press, 2000. 1 v.
Chinnathai, M. K.; Alkan, B.; Harrison, R. Convertibility evaluation of automated assembly system designs for high variety production. Procedia CIRP, v. 60, p. 74-79, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2017.01.005.
Clark, K. B.; Wheelright, S. C. Managing new products and process development: text and cases. New York: Free Press, 1993. 896 p.
Cooper, R. G. Winning at new products: accelerating the process from idea to launch. 2nd ed. Nova York: Basic Books, 2001. p. 358.
Cooper, R. G.; Edgett, S. J.; Kleinschimidt, E. J. Portfolio management for new products. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1998.
Elmaraghy, H. et al. Managing variations in products, processes and manufacturing systems. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology v. 58, n. 1, p. 441-446, 2009. Available from: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0007850609001267>. Access in: 10 May 2017.
Fagerström, B.; Jackson, M. Efficient collaboration between main and sub-suppliers. Computers in Industry, v. 49, n. 1, p. 25-35, 2002.
Fliess, S.; Becker, U. Supplier integration: controlling of co-development processes. Industrial Marketing Management, v. 35, n. 1, p. 28-44, 2006.
Fujita, K.; Sakaguchi, H.; Akagi, S. Product variety deployment and its optimization under modular architecture and module commonalization. In: ASME DESIGN ENGINEERING TECHNICAL CONFERENCE, 1999, Las Vegas. Proceedings… New York: ASME; 1999. p. 1-12.
Füller, J.; Faullant, R.; Matzler, K. Triggers for virtual customer integration in the development of medical equipment - From a manufacturer and a user’s perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, v. 39, n. 8, p. 1376-1383, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2010.04.003.
Garrett, T. C.; Buisson, D. H.; Yap, C. M. National culture and R&D and marketing integration mechanisms in new product development: a cross-cultural study between Singapore and New Zealand. Industrial Marketing Management, v. 35, n. 3, p. 293-307, 2006.
Graziadio, T. Estudos comparativos entre fornecedores de computadores automotivos de placas convencionais e modulares. 2004. 175 f.Tese (Doutorado em Engenharia de Produção)-Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2004.
Hall, D. L.; Nauda, A. An interactive approach for selecting IR&D projects. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, v. 37, n. 2, p. 126-133, 1990.
Homburg, C.; Kuehnl, C. Is the more always better? A comparative study of internal and external integration practices in new product and new service development. Journal of Business Research, v. 67, n. 7, p. 1360-1367, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.08.017.
Jiao, J.; Zhang, L.; Pokharel, S. Process platform planning for variety coordination from design to production in mass customization manufacturing. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, v. 54, n. 1, p. 112-129, 2007.
Jonas, D.; Kock, A.; Gemuenden, H. G. Predicting project portfolio success by measuring management quality: a longitudinal study. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, v. 60, n. 2, p. 215-226, 2013.
Kaczmarek, S. et al. Improving design efforts and assembly efficiency of rotor blade carriers through modularisation. Procedia CIRP, v. 50, p. 76–81, 2016. Available from: <http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212827116304747>. Access in: 10 May 2017.
Kahn, K. B. Interdepartmental integration: a definition with implications for product development performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 13, n. 2, p. 137-151, 1996.
Koufteros, X. A.; Edwin Cheng, T. C.; Lai, K. H. “Black-box” and “gray-box” supplier integration in product development: antecedents, consequences and the moderating role of firm size. Journal of Operations Management, v. 25, n. 4, p. 847-870, 2007.
Lanza, G. et al. Assessment of flexible quantities and product variants in production. CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, v. 3, n. 4, p. 279-284, 2010.
Lau, A. K. W. Critical success factors in managing modular production design: six company case studies in Hong Kong, China, and Singapore. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management - JET-M, v. 28, n. 3, p. 168-183, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jengtecman.2011.03.004.
Meskendahl, S. The influence of business strategy on project portfolio management and its success: a conceptual framework. International Journal of Project Management, v. 28, n. 8, p. 807-817, 2010. Available from: <http://modir3-3.ir/article-english/article309.pdf>. Access in: 31 May 2017.
Millson, M. R.; Wilemon, D. The impact of organizational integration and product development proficiency on market success. Industrial Marketing Management, v. 31, n. 1, p. 1-23, 2002.
Mohamad, A. et al. Use of modularization in design as a strategy to reduce component variety in one-off projects. Product Development and Design Management, p. 289-298, 2013.
Nishikawa, H.; Schreier, M.; Ogawa, S. User-generated versus designer-generated products: a performance assessment at Muji. International Journal of Research in Marketing, v. 30, n. 2, p. 160-167, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2012.09.002.
Oh, J.; Yang, J.; Lee, S. Managing uncertainty to improve decision-making in NPD portfolio management with a fuzzy expert system. Expert Systems with Applications, v. 39, n. 10, p. 9868-9885, 2012.
Oliveira, M. G.; Rozenfeld, H. Integrating technology roadmapping and portfolio management at the front-end of new product development. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, v. 77, n. 8, p. 1339-1354, 2010.
Pahl, G.; Wallace, K.; Blessing, L. Engineering design: a systematic approach. USA: Springer, 2007. v. 157.
Petersen, K. J.; Handfield, R. B.; Ragatz, G. L. Supplier integration into new product development: coordinating product, process and supply chain design. Journal of Operations Management, v. 23, n. 3-4, p. 371-388, 2005.
Prasad, B. Concurrent engineering fundamentals. USA: Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996. v. 1.
Randall, T.; Ulrich, K. Product variety, supply chain structure, and firm performance: analysis of the U.S. bicycle industry. Management Science v. 47, n. 12, p. 1588-1604, dez. 2001. Available from: <http://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/abs/10.1287/mnsc.47.12.1588.10237>. Access in: 10 May 2017.
Sako, M.; Murray, F. Modules in design, production and use: implications for the global auto industry. In: INTERNATIONAL MOTOR VEHICLE PROGRAM (IMVP) ANNUAL SPONSORS MEETING, 1999, Cambridge. Proceedings… Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1999.
Sánchez, A. M.; Pérez, M. P. Flexibility in new product development: a survey of practices and its relationship with the product’s technological complexity. Technovation, v. 23, n. 2, p. 139-145, 2003. Available from: <http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166497201000967>. Access in: 10 May 2017.
Tseng, H.-E.; Chang, C.-C.; Li, J.-D. Modular design to support green life-cycle engineering. Expert Systems with Applications, v. 34, n. 4, p. 2524-2537, 2008. Available from: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0957417407001443>. Access in: 10 May 2017.
Verganti, R. Planned flexibility: linking antecipation and reaction in product development projects. Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 16, n. 4, p. 363-376, 1999.
Zhao, Y.; Cavusgil, E.; Cavusgil, S. T. An investigation of the black-box supplier integration in new product development. Journal of Business Research, v. 67, n. 6, p. 1058-1064, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.06.006.