New product development: examining its evolution and the introduction of environmental issues
Environmental impacts have required a greater commitment of the companies in the search for sustainable solutions for the improvement of the process of new product development (NPD). In this context, the objective of this work is to examine 50 NPD structures, to identify if those structures have considered environmental issues. The publications were located in different databases were accessed to retrieved the publications and a systematic literature review was conducted. The results indicate that there are few NPD structures that take into account environmental issues in order to reduce impact of their product and process. In addition, there are differences in the scope of these structures according to the area of knowledge that proposes them as well as differences in the distribution of the phases in the NPD process according to the characteristics of the developed product. Conclusively, the NPD structures have been constantly developed in the literature. Nevertheless, the integration of environmental issues into NPD structures can be seen in more recent publications, in which such structures seem to minimize the environmental impacts during the product life cycle.
ANDREASEN, M. M.; HEIN, L. Integrated product development. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.
ARCHER, B. L. La estructura del proceso del diseño. In: BROADBENT, G. et al. (Ed.). Metodologia del diseño arquitectonico. Barcelona: Editorial Gustavo Gili, 1971. p. 153-221.
ASIMOV, M. Introduction to design: fundamentals of engineering design. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1962.
AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ACTION GROUP – AIAG. Advanced Product Quality Planning – APQP. Control Plan. Reference manual. AIAG, Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, 1994.
BAKSHI, B. R.; FIKSEL, J. The Quest for Sustainability: challenges for process systems engineering. AIChE Journal, v. 49, n. 6, p. 1350-1358, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690490602.
BARCZAK, G.; GRIFFIN, A.; KAHN, K. B. Perspective: trends and drivers of success in NPD practices: results of the 2003 PDMA best practices study. Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 26, n. 1, p. 3-23, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2009.00331.x.
BARCZAK, G.; KAHN, K. B. Identifying new product development best practice. Business Horizons, v. 55, n. 3, p. 293-305, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2012.01.006.
BIGLIARD, B.; BOTTANI, E.; RINALDI, M. The new product development process in the mechanical industry: evidences from some Italian case studies. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, v. 5, n. 2, p. 1-23, 2013.
BOKS, C. The soft side of ecodesign. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 14, n. 15-16, p. 1346-1356, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.11.015.
BONSIEPE, G. Teoría y práctica del diseño industrial: elementos para una manualística crítica. Barcelona: Gustavo Gili, 1978. (Comunicación Visual).
BOOZ, A. H. New product Development for the 1980s. New York: Booz Allen Hamilton Consultants, 1982. BRETTEL, M. et al. Cross-functional integration of R&D, marketing, and manufacturing in radical and incremental product innovations and its effects on project effectiveness and efficiency. Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 28, n. 2, p. 251-269, 2011.
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION – BSI. BS 7000: design management systems: guide to managing the design of manufactured products. London: BSI, 1997.
BUIJS, J. Modelling product innovation processes, from linear logic to circular chaos. Creativity and Innovation Management, v. 12, n. 2, p. 76-93, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8691.00271.
CLARK, K. B.; FUJIMOTO, T. Product development performance: strategy, organization and management in the world auto industry. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1991.
CLARK, K. B.; WHEELWRIGHT, S. C. Managing new product and process development. New York: The Free Press, 1993.
COOPER, R. G. Winning at new products: accelerating the process from idea to launch. Reading: Perseus Books, 1993.
COOPER, R. G. Perspective: the stage-gates idea-to-launch process-update, what’s new, and NexGen Systems. Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 25, n. 3, p. 213-232, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2008.00296.x.
COOPER, R. G. What’s next? After stage-gate. Research Technology Management, v. 57, n. 1, p. 20-31, 2014.
CRAWFORD, C. M.; BENEDETTO, C. A. New products management. 6ed. Chicago: McGraw Hill, 2000.
CROSS, M. S.; SIVALOGANATHAN, S. Specialist knowledge identification, classification, and usage in companyspecific new product development processes. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, v. 221, n. 8, p. 285-298, 2007.
CRUL, M. R. M.; DIEHL, J. C. Design for sustainability: a practical approach for developing economies. [S.l.]: United Nations Environment Programme, Delft University of Technology, 2006. 130 p. Available from:
DEVANATHAN, S. et al. Integration of sustainability into early design through the function impact matrix. Journal of Mechanical Design, v. 132, n. 8, p. 081004, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4001890.
DICKSON, P. Marketing Management. 4th ed. The Dryden Press, 1997.
DRIVA, H.; PAWAR, K. S.; MENON, U. Measuring product development performance in manufacturing organizations. International Journal of Production Economics, v. 63, n. 2, p. 147-159, 2000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5273(99)00007-9.
DUYSTERS, G. et al. Managing supplier involvement in new product development. Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 25, n. 2, p. 180-201, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2008.00293.x.
EARLE, M. D. Changes in the food product development process. Trends in Food Science & Technology, v. 8, n. 1, p. 19-24, 1997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(96)20009-3.
ERTAS, A.; JONES, J. C. The engineering design process. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
FLEISCHER, M.; LIKER, J. K. Concurrent engineering effectiveness: integrating product development across organizations. Cincinnati: Hanser Gardner Publications, 1997.
FORD, R.; COULSTON, C. Design for electrical and computer engineers: theory concepts and practice. Pennsylvania: McGraw-Hill Companies, Pennsylvania State University, 2005. 300 p.
FREDERICKS, E. Cross-functional involvement in new product development. Qualitative Market Research, v. 8, n. 3, p. 327-341, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13522750510603370.
FULLER, W. G. New food product development: from concept to marketplace. Florida: CRC Press LLC, 1994.
GARCIA, R.; CALANTONE, R. A critical look at technological innovation typology and innovativeness terminology: a literature review. Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 19, n. 2, p. 110-132, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0737-6782(01)00132-1.
GRAF, E.; SAGUY, S. Food product development: from concept to the marketplace. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.
GRIFFIN, A.; PAGE, A. L. An interim report on measuring product development success and failure. Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 10, n. 4, p. 291-308, 1993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0737-6782(93)90072-X.
HAQUE, B.; PAWAR, K. S.; BARSON, R. J. The application of business process modelling to organisational analysis of concurrent engineering environments. Technovation, v. 23, n. 2, p. 147-162, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4972(01)00103-1.
HULTINK, E. J.; ROBBEN, H. S. J. Measuring new product success: the difference that time perspective makes. Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 12, n. 5, p. 392- 405, 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0737-6782(95)00055-0.
INGLE, K. A. Reverse engineering. New York: McGrawHill, 1994. 240 p.
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION – ISO. ISO 14.062: environmental management e integrating environmental aspects into product design and development. Genebra: ISO, 2002. In portuguese. (ISO Bulletin).
JOHANSSON, G. Success factor for integration of ecodesign in product development: a review of state of the art. Environmental Management and Health, v. 13, n. 1, p. 98-107, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09566160210417868.
JUGEND, D. et al. Integration practices for the technological innovation of products: Case studies at two large technological companies. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, v. 8, n. 1, p. 26-36, 2013.
KALPIC, B.; BERNUS, P. Business process in modelling in industry: the powerful tool in enterprise management. Computers in Industry, v. 47, n. 3, p. 299-318, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-3615(01)00151-8.
KENGPOL, A.; BOONKANIT, P. The decision support framework for developing Ecodesign at conceptual phase based upon ISO/TR 14062. International Journal of Production Economics, v. 131, n. 1, p. 4-14, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2010.10.006.
KOTLER, P. Atmospherics as a Marketing tool. Journal of Retailing, v. 49, p. 48-64, 1974.
KRISHNAN, V.; LOCH, C. H. A retrospective look at production and operations management articles on new product development. Production and Operations Management, v. 14, n. 4, p. 433-441, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1937-5956.2005.tb00231.x.
KRISHNAN, V.; ULRICH, K. T. Product Development decisions: a review of the literature. Management Science, v. 47, n. 1, p. 1-21, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.188.8.131.5268.
LIN, J. et al. A dynamic model for managing overlapped iterative product development. European Journal of Operational Research, v. 185, n. 1, p. 378-392, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2006.12.022.
LINDAHL, M. et al. Use and perception of design for environment in small and medium sized enterprises in Sweden. In: INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON
ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS DESIGN AND INVERSE MANUFACTURING, 3., 2003, Tokyo, Japan. Proceedings... Union of EcoDesigners, 2003.
LITTELL, J. H.; CORCORAN, J.; PILLAI, V. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
LOFTHOUSE, V.; BHAMRA, T. Making things better: an industrial designers approach to ecodesign. In: D3 DESIRE, DESIGNUM, DESIGN: EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF DESIGN CONFERENCE, 4., 2001. Proceedings... 2001.
MACFIE, H. Computer assisted product development. World of Ingredients, p. 44-49, 1994.
MACGREGOR, S. P. et al. Supporting new product creation in the Mondragón Valley. European Journal of Innovation Management, v. 9, n. 4, p. 418-443, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14601060610707858.
MALTZ, E.; SOUDER, W. E.; KUMAR, A. Influencing R&D/marketing integration and the use of market information by R&D managers: intended and unintended effects of managerial actions. Journal of Business Research, v. 52, n. 1, p. 69-82, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(99)00096-X.
MCGRATH, M. E. Setting the PACE in product development: a guide to product and cycle-time excellence. Revised edition. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996.
NIJSSEN, E. J.; LIESHOUT, K. F. M. Awareness, use and effectiveness of models and methods for new product development. European Journal of Marketing, v. 29, n. 10, p. 27-44, 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090569510098483.
NOBELIUS, D. Linking product development to applied research: transfer experiences from an automotive company. Technovation, v. 24, n. 4, p. 321-334, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4972(02)00073-1.
NWABUEZE, U.; LAW, Z. C. The journey for survival: the case of new product development in the brewery industry. Journal of Product and Brand Management, v. 10, n. 6, p. 382-397, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000006208.
PAHL, G. et al. Engineering Design: fundamentals of effective product development: methods and applications. São Paulo: Edgard Blücher, 2005. In portuguese.
PAHL, G.; BEITZ, W. Engineering design. In: POMERANS, A. K. W. The Design Council. London: Springer Verlag, 1977.
PARK, C. W.; ZALTMAN, G. Marketing management. Chicago: The Dryden Press, 1987.
PETERS, A. J. et al. New product design and development: a generic model. The TQM Magazine, v. 11, n. 3, p. 172-179, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09544789910262743.
PIGOSSO, D. C. A.; ROZENFELD, H.; MCALOONE, T. C. Ecodesign maturity model: a management framework to support ecodesign implementation into manufacturing companies. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 59, p. 160-173, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.06.040.
PLATCHECK, E. R. et al. Methodology of ecodesign for the development of more sustainable electro-electronic equipments. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 16, n. 1, p. 75-86, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.10.006.
PRASAD, B. Concurrent engineering fundamentals: integrated product and process organization. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1997. (Prentice Hall International Series, 2).
PRAŠNIKAR, J.; SKERLJ, T. New product development process and time-to-market in the generic pharmaceutical industry. Industrial Marketing Management, v. 35, n. 6, p. 690-702, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2005.06.001.
REBITZER, G. et al. Life cycle assessment. Part 1: framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, and applications. Environment International, v. 30, n. 5, p. 701-720, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2003.11.005.
ROOZENBURG, N. F. M.; EEKELS, J. Product Design: fundamentals and methods. New York: John Wiley, 1995. 408 P.
ROSENTHAL, S. R. Effective Product Design and Development: how to cut lead time and increase customer satisfaction. New York: Irwin Professional Publishing, 1992.
ROZENFELD, H. et al. Product Development Management: a benchmark for process improvement. São Paulo: Saraiva, 2006. In Portuguese.
RUDDER, A.; AINSWORTH, P.; HOLGATE, D. Case study: new food product development: strategies for success? British Food Journal, v. 103, n. 9, p. 657-670, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00070700110407012.
RUDOLPH, M. J. The food product development process. British Food Journal, v. 97, n. 3, p. 3-11, 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00070709510081408.
SAREN, M. A. A classification and review of models of the intrafirm innovation process. R&D Management, v. 14, n. 1, p. 11-24, 1984. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9310.1984. tb00504.x.
SCHMIDT, J. B.; SARANGEE, K. R.; MONTOYA, M. M. Exploring new product development project review practices. Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 26, n. 5, p. 520-535, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2009.00678.x.
SHERWIN, C.; BHAMRA, T. Beyond engineering: ecodesign as a proactive approach to product innovation. In: First INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON
ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS DESIGN AND INVERSE MANUFACTURING, 1., 1999, Tokyo. Proceedings... IEEE Computer Society, 1999. p. 41-46.
SONG, M.; NOH, J. Best new product development and management practices in the Korean high-tech industry. Industrial Marketing Management, v. 35, n. 3, p. 262-278, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2005.04.007.
SUH, N. P. The principles of design. New York: Oxford Press, 1988.
SUN, H.; WING, W. C. Critical success factors for new product development in the Hong Kong toy industry. Technovation, v. 25, n. 3, p. 293-303, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4972(03)00097-X.
THOMKE, S. H.; NIMGADE, A. IDEO Product Development. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2007. p. 1-21. (Harvard Business School Case, 600-143).
TISCHNER, U.; CHARTER, M. Sustainable product design. In: CHARTER, M.; TISCHNER, U. (Ed.). Sustainable solutions: developing products and services for the future. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing, 2001. p. 118-138.
TZOKAS, N.; HULTINK, E. J.; HART, S. Navigating the new product development process. Industrial Marketing Management, v. 33, n. 7, p. 619-626, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2003.09.004.
ULRICH, K. T.; EPPINGER, S. D. Product design and development. New York: McGraw Hill, 2007. 368 p.
ULRICH, K. T.; EPPINGER, D. S. Product design and development. New York: McGraw Hill, 2012.
UNGER, D. W. Product development process design: improving development response to market, technical, and regulatory risks. 2003. 205 f. Thesis (Doutorate in Engineering)-Technology Management and Policy Program, Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Massachussetts, 2003.
URBAN, G. L.; HAUSER, J. R. Design and marketing of new products. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1993.
VEREIN DEUTSCHER INGENIEURE – VDI. VDI 2221: methodik zum entwickeln und konstruieren technischer systeme und produkte. Düsseldorf: VDI, 1985.
WACKER, J. G. A theory of formal conceptual definition: developing theory-building measurement instruments. Journal of Operations Management, v. 22, n. 6, p. 629-650, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2004.08.002.
WHEELWRIGHT, S. C.; CLARK, K. B. Revolutionizing product development: quantum leaps in speed, efficiency and quality. New York: The Free Press, 1992.
YEH, T. M.; PAI, F. Y.; YANG, C. C. Performance improvement in new product development with effective tools and techniques adoption for high-tech industries. Quality & Quantity, v. 44, n. 1, p. 131-152, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11135-008-9186-7.