Product: Management and Development
Product: Management and Development
Research Article

Inclusive interactive simulation: stakeholder empowerment, satisfaction, and confidence in solution design and decision making

Ira Winder; Kazuo Hiekata

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In transdisciplinary engineering, the development of solutions increasingly relies on the utilization of computational modeling and simulation tools, skillfully wielded by experts in the field. Although these tools possess great power, they often inadvertently sideline individuals who lack technical expertise, excluding them from the solution design process. Recognizing this issue, we delve into a discussion concerning an experiment aimed at gauging the effectiveness of “inclusive” computational modeling techniques. These techniques are designed to actively involve non-technical stakeholders in the solution generation process. In our experiment, participants assumed the role of empowered citizens tasked with selecting their favored design for a real estate development project within their city. We provided them with access to a web-based digital design tool, enabling them to view, modify, and create various building scenarios. Ultimately, participants were asked to specify their preferred solution as the final choice, while also sharing their levels of satisfaction and confidence regarding their decision. The results of our study revealed a noteworthy willingness among non-expert participants to exercise their personal judgment in decision-making. The most satisfied and confident participants were even willing to override or disregard professional recommendations when making their choices. This research bears significant implications for the integration of technology-driven participatory design processes within the realm of transdisciplinary engineering.


decision support systems, collaborative design decisions, interactive simulation, transdisciplinary engineering, urban design


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